“תכבד העבודה על האנשים ויעשו בה, ועל ישעו בדברי שקר”
Let there more work be laid upon the men that they may labour therein: and let them not regard vain words
The Bible, Exodus 5, 9 (1) (1996a)
Entropy: Measure of chaos, disintegration, disorder and disorganisation, aging and disease, suffering.
Anti-entropy: Degree of organisation, order and integration, beauty, power, wealth and happiness.
Legend of desirable anti-entropy: Process in the human brain, “creation” in mind and emotional systems as project, stimulus (legend) that could be the source of feeling good, enjoyment and happiness.
The main targets of a human being are to achieve pleasure, gladness, delight, enjoyment, and happiness. Most techniques for contentment are simple, and include legitimate every day well-being. Unfortunately, many individuals are not content with a routine lifestyle as they feel that such a lifestyle lacks stimuli to brain mechanisms and does not provide a feeling of well-being.
Any stimulus, such as an event, product, achievement, wealth, sense, thought, conception, or anything that may have value for a human being can be defined as anti-entropy in contrast to entropy that is a degree of chaos. Individuals who cannot enjoy and be happy with a routine lifestyle are defined as having anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon. Such individuals may experience abnormal behaviour that occasionally can lead to psychopathy, or sickness. Causes of anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon may be a genetic, or an acquired deficiency of brain mechanisms that provide feelings of well-being, enjoyment and happiness in a routine lifestyle. As a compensatory mechanism, individuals suffering from anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon may create in their psyche and emotional life, legends of desirable anti-entropy that could at times be harmful to them or their surroundings.
To define, recognize and diagnose the legends of anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon could facilitate in coping with more abnormal human behaviour, crime and sickness.
Key words: Human behaviour, Anti-entropy, Legends of desirable anti-entropy, Well-being, Happiness
Human behaviour is characterised by a prominent tendency and drive to achieve pleasure, satisfaction and happiness, and to avoid suffering, pain and sorrow (Aminoff 2007, 2013a, 2013b). This viewpoint is reminiscent of a renowned philosophical theory termed utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics according to which the proper course of action is based upon utility, usually defined as maximizing happiness and reducing suffering. The two most influential contributors to classic utilitarianism were Jeremy Bentham (1789) and John Stuart Mill (1879).
Pessimists hold this world to be mainly bad, or even worse, and plagued with, among other factors, unbearable and relentless suffering. Some identify suffering as the nature of the world, and conclude that it would be better if life did not exist at all. Arthur Schopenhauer (1969, first published in 1818) recommends taking refuge in art, philosophy, the will to live and tolerance towards fellow-sufferers.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1954, first published in1895), initially influenced by Schopenhauer, subsequently developed quite another attitude, arguing that suffering is productive, exalting the will to power, despising weak compassion or pity, and recommending willfully embracing the eternal return of the greatest sufferings.
As defined by John B. Watson (1913) the behaviourist views psychology as a purely objective experimental branch of natural science, and that the theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behaviour.
Sigmund Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, ego and super-ego. Freud discussed this model in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1961), and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id (1949, first published in 1923) , in which he expounded his paradigm as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (i.e., conscious, unconscious and preconscious). The id is the completely unconscious, impulsive, childlike portion of the psyche that operates on the pleasure principle, is the source of basic impulses and drives that seek immediate pleasure and gratification.
Positive emotional mechanisms differ from those of negative emotions. Many aspects of human behaviour, in particular and in general, could be explained by an inability to achieve pleasure and satisfaction through a normal, balanced human lifestyle. An absence of suitable stimuli for those emotional mechanisms in the brain associated with pleasure, satisfaction and happiness will result in aberrant behaviour that may lead a person to do harm to another, to society in general, or to self. In some cases aberrant behaviour is actually an abnormality (McLeod 2008; Rosenhan and Seligman 1989), psychopathy (Hare 1970; Kantor 2006), or sickness.
Entropy and anti-entropy
Factors affecting mechanisms in the brain connected with emotions, such as pleasure, satisfaction and happiness, could involve a substance, an event, or a sense of organisation that can raise the anti-entropy level of individuals, or that of their environment. This article is an attempt to describe aberrant human behaviour resulting from building legends of desirable anti-entropy deficiency.
The term entropy was coined in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius based on the Greek word εντροπία [entropía], a turning toward, from εν- [en-] (in) and τροπή [tropē] (turn, conversion). The argument that life feeds on negative entropy, or negentropy, is asserted in the book What is Life? by physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1944). Schrödinger is also renowned for having won the 1933 Nobel Prize for his development of the Schrödinger equation, the definition of which is as follows: (entropy) = k log (1/D), where k is the Boltzmann constant, 1/D, can be regarded as a direct measure of order. Negative entropy, or negentropy, may also be defined as anti-entropy, a term usually used in our research papers.
Entropy may be defined as a measure of chaos or disorder. If the system is perfected, managed correctly, or otherwise well ordered, then the entropy of the system is lowered accordingly, and is thus described as exhibiting depressed entropy, negative entropy, or anti-entropy.
My colleagues and I presented and published the entropic definition of human happiness and suffering (Aminoff 2001, 2007, 2011, 2013a). An anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon in Aminoff suffering syndrome in advanced dementia was first defined and presented by Aminoff in 2013 (2013b).
Mechanisms of human feeling of well-being
In order to understand human behaviour, one must be familiar with the mechanisms of human pleasure, happiness and satisfaction. A feeling of well-being is the main motivating factor throughout the course of an individual’s life. These feelings of well-being result from stimulation to the brain center, the secretion of chemical substances in the brain that stimulate activity of the receptors, and may also activate a network of centers, cells, or systems in the brain.
The existence of pleasure centers was proven in famous studies conducted in the 1950’s, in which electrical stimulation of brain centers in rats caused them such pleasure that they did not stop pressing a button that activated an electrical stimulation to the brain (Olds and Milner 1954). These authors first identified brain sites that reinforce direct electrical stimulation. Laboratory animals would lever press at high rates (> 6,000 times per hour) to obtain brief stimulation pulses to certain brain regions. The reinforcement from direct electrical activation of this reward substrate is more potent than other rewards, such as food or water. The potency of this electrical stimulation is dramatically illustrated in a classic experiment wherein the rats suffered self-imposed starvation when forced to make a choice between obtaining food and water, or electrical brain stimulation (Routtenberg and Lindy 1965). To my knowledge, there has not been much progress on this topic. Experiments of this kind have not in fact been performed on humans, perhaps for ethical reasons.
The development of brain center imaging, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), has facilitated in detecting brain activity in various areas during times of pleasure (Kassam et al. 2013; Phan et al. 2002). Various kinds of stimuli were examined, such as sexual, food, among others (Sescousse et al. 2010).
There exists an entire scientific branch of study concerning neurotransmitters that induce a sense of well-being: Endorphins (Malick and Bell 1982), serotonin (Ahmad and Brown 2006), dopamine (Mizrahi et al. 2009), and possibly others, are considered to engender a feeling of well-being.
Legends of desirable anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon
Thus far I have not added anything innovative. The factors activating those systems in the brain that invoke a sense of well-being are the subject of this article.
In the course of their everyday lives, both animals and humans have existential urges. According to Abraham Maslow’s motivational model in hierarchy of needs (Maslow 1943) the biological, physiological, and basic needs are air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, among others. Two of these needs are the impulse to eat (Balon and Hobson 2007) and drink. Another is the sexual urge, and the urge to procreate. Are animals driven by any other strong, significant and persistent urges?
Let us presume that a lion will not attack animals in its vicinity if it is not hungry. Lions hunt prey every few days to satiate themselves, and periodically they ensure that they have progeny. Apart from these needs their time is mostly spent idle. Emotional needs and urges in the animal world are relatively defined and limited. Accordingly, there is no reason to expect that animals encounter difficult emotional situations requiring them to have stronger and more varied stimulation than usual in order to enjoy themselves.
There is an enormous divide between the emotional and intellectual worlds of animals and humans, and there is no middle ground between these two worlds. It is true that people also have basic existential urges, which include the need to eat, and the urge to procreate. However, beyond that, humans have an endless list of needs to create a feeling of well-being.
Stimulation to the pleasure centers of the brain is unique, in that such stimulation must be positive. Let us analyse two basic stimulants to the pleasure centers of the brain: Food and sexuality. We are surrounded by millions of substances. Animals and humans are able to select food from a limited number of substances in their surroundings. Instinct allows us to choose substances that provide a source of energy and renewal for our physical beings.
Hunger In a human being, or an animal, implies that something is lacking, gone, or dissipated. According to my theory, this denotes that their entropy level has increased, or their anti-entropy level has decreased. In simple terms, entropy is a measure of chaos, or disorder. Conversely, anti-entropy is a measure of order, and organisation.
It could be said that the impulse to eat is really an urge to supplement something that has broken down and disappeared, an impulse to replenish ourselves, and continue with the process of life. It is an impulse to replenish our level of anti-entropy. When a person or an animal eats, besides ingesting a portion of food, they also replenish something that was lacking, receive a dose of anti-entropy, and a measure of organisation. First and foremost, eating increases their level of anti-entropy that generates a feeling of being satiated and, in general, a sensation of well-being.
Food and sustenance are certainly one of the great pleasures enjoyed by humans. Even a newborn infant, who knows nothing else, has an urge to breastfeed. When a baby is hungry it wakes and cries. Breastfeeding calms the baby, who falls back into a deep pleasurable and peaceful sleep. For an infant, sucking, swallowing and ingesting milk is in effect a calming, enriching and happiness-inducing sedative (Insel 1992).
Adults have an endless variety of foods, delicacies and recipes from which to choose. In fact, most individuals are satisfied with simple, ordinary food. For them, food and eating are not an expression nor does it involve a search for a variety of expensive pleasures.
It is at this point that I would like to describe the legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon and syndrome. There may be a disruption in the pleasure mechanisms, a fault in the brain’s pleasure centers, arising from birth or acquired, or there may be insufficient neurotransmitter secretions, also since birth or acquired. In most cases, this will result primarily from the exertion of increased negative external or internal stimuli. In order to deal with such pressures, the brain requires increased stimulus to provide a sense of well-being.
It is said that a positive external stimulus, that could simply be a portion of food, induces the brain centers to invoke a feeling of well-being, i.e., a dose of anti-entropy.
Food is the cheapest, most accessible and legitimate form of drug that almost immediately works on the brain center, e.g. a simple diverse range of food, candies, chocolate bars, a creamy, delicious ice-cream, or a carbonated soft drink. Indeed, most overweight people suffer from this syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is fundamentally a desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome, caused by a lack of stimulation, organisation and desirable anti-entropy, elements which provide a feeling of well-being (Eldredge and Agras 1994; McKenna 1972). In order to rectify this and to achieve a sense of well-being, an individual will eat non-stop. Another definition of this phenomenon is emotional eating (Habhab et al. 2009; Macht 2008; Torres and Nowson 2007).
The approach generally taken in dealing with this metabolic syndrome is to focus on what a person puts on his dinner plate. This approach is erroneous and as such, 96% of cases treated through diet are unsuccessful. It is true that an overweight and obese patient will, for a while, succeed in losing weight. Subsequently, this method usually fails, because the patient does not feel good. In order to achieve a feeling of well-being, he breaks the diet, eats and enjoys.
In order to treat the metabolic syndrome, to prevent the resulting obesity and diabetes, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, certain heart attacks and cerebrovascular events, this legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome (eating as a legend to feeling good) needs to be addressed. It must be understood that such patients suffer from a lack of brain stimulation that could cause pleasure, and as a substitute they resort to eating.
I understand the various illnesses that affect humans in our developed world. The majority suffer from complications of the syndrome herein described, whereas the medical field and human society are oblivious to this phenomenon. This is especially true for individuals with morbid obesity. Diets, physical exercise, shortening of the stomach, gastric bands, or medication are not beneficial. It is difficult to know what approach should be taken when treating obese patients who are identified as having a legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. In the future, at least, the medical world will have conducted research into understanding mechanisms of happiness and pleasure, thus providing clarity on treatment for this syndrome.
Understanding the mechanisms of happiness and pleasure will help us to comprehend eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (Liu 2007; Messinger and Goldberg 2006) where pleasure is achieved in reverse, through self-imposed starvation and weight loss. As with overeating and obesity, anorexia nervosa is also associated with the pleasure mechanisms. Treatment affects the pleasure centers, thus supplementing the legend of desirable anti-entropy to provide a more positive challenge and alternative for enjoyment than that of losing weight.
Let us explore another basic existential impulse for animals and humans, i.e. the urge to procreate and sexuality. The sexual urge is very strong. I believe that it is peculiar to women. For this reason, the clothing, footwear, perfume, hairdressing and beauty parlour industries compete with the food industry. This behaviour is instinctive, but my impression is that females of all ages are engrossed in a constant battle to gain male attention. This may appear to be strange or inaccurate, because it is generally thought that males have a stronger sexual urge (Baumeister et al. 2001) and that they pursue women, initiate, seek polygamy, and even rape. In reality the opposite is true. Women have a much higher sexual functional capacity than any “strong” man.
The male characteristic of pursuing females, especially some cases of infidelity, as well as some cases of rape of females by males, are due to male weakness and not greater masculine strength. It is due to masculine weakness that a male will seek a substitute, will seek the legend of desirable anti-entropy, seek another woman, sometimes by force, or by resorting to rape (McKibbin et al. 2008).
Nonetheless, for most males and females, copulation is a source of pleasure and is not an unhealthy addiction, or a search for substitutes (Kringelbach and Berridge 2010). However, one cannot ignore the high divorce rate in developed countries, that may be attributed to the sex industry, prostitution, sexual propaganda in the media, movies, and culture. Infidelity is a clear expression of the legend of anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. A male or female dissatisfied with their partner will seek another partner, more beautiful and more stimulating to the pleasure centers.
Of interest is the struggle between the secular and the strict religious world, especially the external appearance of males and females. For reasons of modesty, women’s bodies are completely covered in the ultra-orthodox world in Iran, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, orthodox Jews in Israel and in other countries. Conversely, perceive the revealing clothing, to the extent of being almost naked, that is so common in the free world (Szymanski et al. 2011). The free world does not appreciate its assets. A woman’s provocative clothing is sometimes an invitation to males for flirting. This is the legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome of that individual.
Large groups of humans cannot exist and experience a sense of well-being without strong external stimulation. A life filled with daily routine does not provide pleasure and happiness. People seek a variety of stimuli that are stronger, and out of the ordinary. One of these stimuli is drugs. I have mentioned food, a drug that is common, accessible, and cheap. A recent study in rats suggested that high-fat, high-calorie foods affect the brain in much the same way as cocaine and heroin (Klein 2010). The use of drugs, such as cocaine, and eating too much junk food gradually overloads the so-called pleasure centers in the brain, according to Paul J. Kenny, an Associate Professor of Molecular Therapeutics at the Scripps Research Institute, in Jupiter, Florida, USA. Eventually the pleasure centers crash, and achieving the same pleasure, or even just feeling normal, requires increasing amounts of the drug or food, as reported by Kenny, the lead author of the study (Johnson and Kenny 2010; Kenny 2013).
A legal, very common, relatively cheap drug is alcohol (News and Media 2012). Alcoholism is actually one of a very widespread form of the legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. Wine has been around since the biblical days of Noah and Lot. In Judaism, meals cannot be ingested on a weekday, Sabbath, or Festival without wine. Celebrations, from rituals in primitive societies to royal events, even prestigious scientific conventions, do not take place without a drop of wine, beer, whiskey, or other similar drink. Let us agree it is acceptable to drink a small quantity of alcohol with a meal. A glass of wine, beer, or alcoholic beverage is even recommended (Agarwal 2002).
Unfortunately, we live in a world where alcoholic drinks are a primary source of pleasure, happiness and amusement. Millions of people need to drink in order to achieve a feeling of well-being (Kim et al. 2013; Saitz 2010). Almost everyone knows that alcoholism results from a sense of emptiness in life, a lack of meaning which would otherwise provide a prolonged and continuing feeling of well-being. That is the reason people are lenient when it comes to a glass, or bottle of alcohol.
It is true that defining the problem does not mean there is a solution. Certainly, there is no an immediate solution. It is impossible to change the lifestyle of millions of people in one stroke, such that from one day to the next they stop drinking huge quantities of alcohol in their attempt to seize a “moment of happiness”.
It transpires that no attempt to enact dry legislation, or limiting the hours for legal drinking of alcohol, has ever succeeded. Countries that have attempted to limit alcohol consumption have failed, because no alternative stimulation was offered to the brain as a substitute for alcohol, in order to provide an immediate, cheap and accessible feeling of well-being. It is of interest that Islam prohibits the use of alcohol, although my understanding is that few individuals observe this law. At least, that was the case in the Moslem world of the Soviet Union.
An ongoing controversy concerns tea and coffee. Large numbers of populations are unable to function without a cup of tea or coffee (Nehlig et al. 1992). My belief is that very few cases involve genuine illness. It is known that inmates in Russian prisons are addicted to very strong tea. In any event, in daily life, drinking tea and coffee introduces a refreshing substance to the body and brain.
It is only natural that we proceed to nicotine addiction that is also a very widespread form of the legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. Smoking is known to be harmful (Giovino et al. 2012). Smoking in public places is strictly forbidden and refraining from smoking is difficult for most individuals. It is well-known that individuals who try to stop smoking gain weight. The reason is that in order to replace the calming effects of a cigarette, snacking on chocolates, candy, or even regular food will provide a few minutes of well-being. It is hoped that a genuine treatment for not smoking will be found in the near future.
Simple, cultural habits do exist as an alternative to real life pleasures. The question is why there are so many Indian films about paradise, happiness and wealth. This was thought to be a substitute “happiness and wealth” for India’s large impoverished population, and constitutes an alternative for the legend of desirable anti-entropy that is lacking in real life. In this instance, I see no reason to prevent the masses from sitting in the cinema for 3 hours. Addictions to all kinds of films, whether romance, adventure, blue movies, violence and suspense provide feeling good. Addiction to online games is epidemic among adolescents and young’s (Kimberly 2009). Concerts by rock stars, attended by tens and sometimes hundreds of thousands of youth, are a type of release, and idolatry.
In the past many people, although today significantly fewer in number, were addicted to reading books (termed bookworms). The drab reality of life can often be spiced up by reading. The emotional life presented in such literature provides a substitute for the reader’s emotional life.
Sports have provided a special type of release over the last century. For millions of people, sports have become a substitute for games of honour in the real world. Every goal that is scored, or ball that goes through a basket, feels like a national victory, and is a substitute for the battlefield in a real war. As long as this provides people with a sense of pride without resorting to violence, I see no harm. In extreme instances, when achieving a level of desirable anti-entropy in sport goes beyond the limits, and the football field becomes a battlefield with victims, then it is pathological. This is desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. Extensive exercise dependence is also a known addiction (Leuenberger 2006) and a legend of anti-entropy deficiency syndrome.
We have now reached an important facet of humanity regarding religion and belief. Even the simplest and most primitive human societies practice some type of idolatry. Karl Marx (1843) was an atheist in his philosophy and defined religion as the opium of the people. Karl Marx had dreams to build a human society without religion, and provide happiness for all populations in this materialistic world. One of the greatest errors made by Karl Marx was that he refused to acknowledge the existence of the Almighty as an objective reality. Atheists comprised an estimated 2.01%, and non-religious an additional 9.66% of the world population, according to The World Fact Book in 2013.
The construction of legends of desirable anti-entropy is a human characteristic, i.e. to believe in some sort of order, a force, a level of anti-entropy that can help and protect human beings, and that is one of the main differences between humans and animals. Animals do not worship gods and they do not suffer from desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome.
The monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, believe in their versions of G-d. Belief in G-d has existed for about 4,000 years, since Abraham discovered the divine spirit. G-d is the pinnacle of absolute anti-entropy. Belief in G-d, that began when the Torah was received at Mount Sinai 3,325 years ago (The Bible 1996a, Exodus), should have been a vision and goal for humanity. There is certainly a relatively small group amongst the Children of Israel, today’s Jews, who champion absolute faith through the laws of the Torah. I refer to some of the ultra-orthodox and national religious communities, and possibly some of the secular populace as well. My belief is that of those with an absolute faith in G-d, most are quite content (Brooks 2008; Cohen-Zada and Sander 2011; Diener and Seligman 2002; Okulicz-Kozaryn 2010; Salsman et al. 2005), are not looking for alternatives, for a meaning to life, for entertainment and pleasure, or for desirable anti-entropy.
A recent systematic review of 850 research papers on the topic concluded that “the majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive effect, and higher morale) and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behaviour, and drug or alcohol abuse” (Gomes et al. 2013). These communities also suffer less from philandering and divorce, violence and crime (DiIulio, 2009).
Unfortunately, a large populace from all religions, Islam, Christianity as well as Judaism, hoist the flag of religion to raise disputes, to deride those with beliefs or religions that are different to theirs, to invoke verbal and physical violence, that may lead to real wars (David, 2013). Notably, this is not in any way connected with the substance of religion and religiosity. Judaism (The Bible 1996b), Christianity and Islam reject humiliation and violence against others who are different. Religious wars involve only an outward cloak of religiosity, without any real religious content.
An absence of legends of desirable anti-entropy, general economic, or spiritual impoverishment, and a failure to achieve a proper human lifestyle, leads both the masses and their leaders to promote the banner of religion and belief, according to which, victims in this world will achieve enjoyment in the afterlife.
This is the current reality in many Muslim countries. Faith is a substitute for a lack of basic life requirements. This is the true legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. Young males or females for whom all avenues to living a dignified life are blocked, find themselves confronted with the challenge to be a hero, and thus believe they will enter the afterlife where they will be rewarded. From their perspective, they are forced into a legend of desirable anti-entropy and commit suicide attacks, killing or injuring untold others in the process (Hudson 1999; Pittel and Rubbelke 2009). It should be stressed that this does not originate from Islam, Christianity or Judaism, because the sanctity of the life of any human being is a fundamental principle of religion and religiosity.
For thousands of years, a large number of wars have been fought under the banner of religion. Countless battles, some lasting for many years, have been waged between Christians of various doctrines, or between Muslims of different dogmas. There have been “wars of independence”, “righteous wars”, “holy wars”, among others.
National leaders, and at times, entire nations, are dissatisfied with an existing situation. They look for challenges, and seek a legend of desirable anti-entropy that is dignified and dignifying, in order to achieve honour, wealth, and possibly happiness. In my view such opinions and challenges are absurd.
What was Alexander the Great seeking in India, and Napoleon and the Nazis in Russia? Millions have been slain, and numerous others have been injured, suffered illness, and indescribable suffering. It is in the disturbed minds of such national leaders that a process called desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome occurs. Occasionally, copious numbers of the population are also affected by this process, i.e., human illness en masse.
This is also reflected in smaller scale battles and conflicts among the populace, either at work, between couples, families, or neighbours. These battles and conflicts are fought because of incompatible and conflicting anti-entropy sensations, and to gain honour. Each party builds a legend of desirable anti-entropy, e.g., I am or we are clever, rich, beautiful, deserving of honour, and have diverse characteristics. This is their source of pride, and their feeling of pleasure. Of course, if a faction or group does not accept this code, is contemptuous or G-d forbid offensive, this will result in full scale war.
A propos there is also an explanation for child violence and vandalism. Unfortunately, humans generally take the easy path to immediate enjoyment. It is very difficult to follow the path of education, boundaries, creation and construction, to achieve a pinnacle, and to arrive at a legend of desirable anti-entropy. The easy path involves being destructive, demonstrating power through violence, and enjoying the feeling of being strong, and more important than others. For this reason violence and vandalism exist amongst children and adults. I witnessed such an incident in Samarkand, involving a young boy who would loiter in the street, waiting for pedestrians, and trip up an innocent person just for his own entertainment and enjoyment, and as a show of power.
Sadism (Chuang, 2011) and masochism Ghent 1990) are well-known pathologies of sexual deviations through which violence leads to sexual satisfaction. Ordinary sexual stimulation is insufficient, and the brain constructs an alternate arrangement that responds as sexual satisfaction through pain and suffering. In my view this appears to be a pathological example of the legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome.
Ostensibly, other sexual deviations result from an inability of the brain and of the person to enjoy and reach sexual satisfaction from ordinary sexual stimulation. This may also hold true for homosexuality (Diamant 1987; Levay 2006), a common phenomenon where a male or female is unable to reach sexual satisfaction with a partner of the opposite sex. It may be that attraction of sexual relations between a male and a female is a very difficult task, complicated, frightening, something that appears unrealistic and, therefore, undesirable. Sexual relations between male and male, female and female may be more attractive because it is the shortest path.
To the best of my knowledge this is the first description of the legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome, we can only hypothesize that the person and his psyche are in constant search of a feeling of well-being. Some occurrences invoke a feeling of well-being whereas others do not. Of those incidents, events and stimulations that do invoke a feeling of well-being, some are human, ethical, cultured, healthy, acceptable, essential, or good. Conversely others evoke totally opposing emotions. This depends on one’s perspective. There is an endless list of situations and human behaviours associated with the phenomenon described in this article.
In developed countries, millions of people receive treatment for depression. I presume that in poor and developing countries this phenomenon is less prevalent (Rettner 2011). In high-achievement, developed countries, great demand are placed on the individual to be of a higher standard than the general population. This creates incredible psychological and physical pressure that many are unable to meet. In simple terms, there is a lack of legend of desirable anti-entropy. Once again we encounter the gap between desire and reality that is the main reason for depression suffered by millions, young and old, educated and uneducated.
It is possible that other psychiatric illnesses are a function of desirable anti-entropy deficiency. In the future, when we are able to understand of human behavioural mechanisms, and many psychological illnesses will be elucidated.
I would like to broach the intricate phenomenon of suicide. The impression is that this phenomenon also exists in the animal and bird kingdom, e.g., mass suicide of dolphins or whales for which there is no clear psychological explanation.
Worldwide, approximately 1,000,000 individuals commit suicide annually (Gvion and Apter 2012). This is a complicated issue, where the patterns change according to age, and different cultures. It is not clear to me whether this phenomenon exists in primitive civilizations but in my opinion it is extremely rare, because in such societies, people are satisfied with their circumstances.
In the developed world, desires, personal demands, demands from others and from society are endless. The sky is the limit. In reality, most of these desires and dreams cannot be fulfilled. Desires and dreams are in fact a legend of desirable anti-entropy, and when they cannot be achieved, mental conflict occurs. A characteristic example is the high suicide rate in the quiet and placid Scandinavian countries. Economic wealth simply does not lead to happiness. On the contrary, when the search for meaning, challenge, or a legend of desirable anti-entropy does not exist, a psychological crisis is reached and is sometimes so severe that it subsequently leads to suicide.
Euthanasia is another type of suicide. This generally applies to incurable individuals nearing the end of their lives, but who are still able to somehow sustain themselves. The medical world has few tools to ensure that a patient does not suffer until his demise. As such, a patient, or family members who see no purpose for further suffering may take a shortcut to a painless death.
The religious worlds of Judaism, Christianity and Islam find special meaning in each and every moment of living, including suffering that is experienced near the end of life. Their belief is that a human being may repent at the last minute and thus acquire for himself a place in the afterlife, and consequently achieve a very desirable anti-entropy legend that is possibly the most important.
Human society suffers from a gambling epidemic. It is of interest that most individuals who frequent casinos do not lack any necessities or comforts. They have everything they need, wealth, status in human society, and are well groomed. However, they lack mental stimulation in order to achieve a sense of well-being.
This leads us to the painful and difficult phenomenon of drug use. This is probably the classic phenomenon of a legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. This widespread phenomenon exists among all ages, both genders, rich and poor, as well as in developed and developing countries.
Many individuals experience moments of feeling bad, but most are able to overcome this. There is always the opportunity to feel good by taking drugs. That moment must be very sweet indeed. For the sake of such a moment, real life, ventures, productivity, creation and genuine struggle are abandoned. The individual enters an imaginary world, which the mind is able to reach through the use of drugs.
Thus, individuals are enticed towards drugs because of a lack of a legend of desirable anti-entropy, that can invoke a sense of “well-being”.
Wherein lies the fault? Is it in the systems of the brain (Betz et al. 2000; Fowler et al. 2007; Nestler 1992)? Is it acquired at birth, or is it an inadequacy arising from external pressures? Comprehension of this is intricate. The world invests tremendous efforts to fight this phenomenon. Police activity, border controls, the war on drugs, publicity, education, and rehabilitation centers has all proved unsuccessful (Drug Policy Alliance 2013; Hunt 2013). According to the principles of legends of desirable anti entropy deficiency syndrome, these endeavours will remain unsuccessful. Even if there is some understanding of the mechanisms behind drug addiction, I would argue that nothing has been done to try to find a substitute for the inability to experience a sense of well-being without drugs. Drug rehabilitation centers need to provide a program that builds meaning in the life of an addict. This necessitates providing a legend of anti-entropy that will cause the brain to feel a sense of well-being, with an intensity that is greater than that achieved from using drugs. Is this even possible?
There are even regions in the world where it is permitted to use drugs without restriction (Gerber 2004). It is true that this temporarily solves the subjective problem of feeling a sense of well-being, but in fact it affects a person’s personality and, of course, the person himself.
It should again be emphasised that the legends of desirable anti entropy deficiency syndrome, is, in my opinion, more common in people of means than in the not poor. This phenomenon is more common in the developed than in the poor world. This is not a paradox. People of scanty means can be happy with the little they have, sometimes with only a slice of bread a day.
In the free, unrestricted world without boundaries, without ideology, an individualistic, egoistic and egocentric human society, basic daily stimulation is no longer successful in achieving a sense of well-being. Consequently, a large number of the populace in such a society has developed a legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome of all the types I have described.
There is no known solution. As quoted in religious societies, salvation will be achieved only through the coming of the Messiah. The first step in finding a solution to the phenomenon I have described is to understand the syndrome, and the awareness of its existence. The second step is the desire and ability to analyse this widespread syndrome. The third step is to conduct scientific, philosophical, psychological and neurological research to understand the mechanisms of development, prevention, and treatment of a legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. It may even be possible to develop some type of medical intervention in certain instances.
The problem is global. For thousands of year’s people of religion, philosophy, psychology, sociology, psychiatry, culture, sport and politics have sought a way to build a happy human society. Till now, all such attempts have failed.
It is true that there is still excessive hunger, horrific poverty, illness, oppression, exploitation and global wars that lead to incredible suffering and prevent happiness. However, even in countries where hunger, poverty, illness, oppression, exploitation and war do not exist, suffering is widespread and the masses lack a feeling of well-being. This implies that when humanity is truly able to eradicate hunger, incredible poverty, illness, oppression, exploitation, and wars, there will still be a struggle to achieve a truly happy human world.
Although humanity is far from being able to solve existing problems, to provide everyone with edible food, accommodation, education, health, among others, throughout all the years of its existence humanity has sought ways to provide everyone with happiness. This has not always been successful.
Here are some principles that I would suggest. It is necessary to recognise that distinct from human happiness, there is human suffering (Cassell 2004, Aminoff 2007, 2013). This topic has almost never been described and investigated. Objective methods, using valid tools, must be developed to measure the level of suffering experienced by various populations. This is always the first step. Initiative must be taken to constantly evaluate levels of suffering (Mayhew 2009, Aminoff 2007, 2013). Until this principle is adopted, humanity will remain at a barbaric level of development, because from this perspective, there is no material difference between us and human societies that existed 2, 000, 3,000 and 4,000 years ago.
During my research experience it transpired that the levels of suffering can be measured in patients with dementia, most of whom cannot verbally communicate (Aminoff 2008; Aminoff and Adunsky, 2004, 2006; Aminoff et al. 2004), and patients with terminal cancer (Adunsky et al. 2008).
It is clear that the mechanisms of human suffering and happiness are totally different from one another. Pain and suffering can be prolonged, be of incredible, unrestrained intensity and unlimited in duration. Occasionally the suffering will only end when the person’s soul passes on. What about the afterlife? No one knows.
Suffering must be treated actively, in most cases with pharmacological treatment, including prescription drugs. It should be remembered that if happiness cannot be provided for all individuals, they should at least be free of pain and suffering. When human society adopts this approach, wants to measure the suffering level of every individual, wants to prevent and treat such suffering, then human society will begin its journey from barbarity to a humane society.
This will be the next level in human development. After unmitigated failure of the Communist world and the return of many countries to capitalism, the human dream to build a humane and equal society dissipated. The right path may be to evaluate suffering levels, prevention and treatment for every individual.
Conversely, feelings of happiness, pleasure and sometimes joy generally pass swiftly. A feeling of well-being is not prolonged in time and persistence, as is the case with pain and suffering. Good feelings generally only last for a matter of minutes, sometimes for hours, or days. On the other hand, the need to experience well-being is persistent. Everyone wants to feel good. As mentioned previously, it is because of this discrepancy between desire and reality in the feel good mechanisms operating on the brain that the syndrome or phenomenon of anti-entropy deficiency develops.
We should question when and whether this is simply a phenomenon, with regular expression, that does not endanger society or individuals themselves, e.g. football fans or suspense films. In many instances it really is a pathological syndrome that involves various dangers, such as the development of illness, complications and death. I have already mentioned metabolic syndromes, anorexia nervosa, depression, suicide, among others. A diagnosis of anti-entropy deficiency syndrome, and research regarding its prevention and treatment in the future may be achieved by medical intervention. The internal and external appearance of the global populations has also changed.
What about battles, small and large, being fought between people, groups of people, and nations. I have defined them also as resulting from an anti-entropy deficiency syndrome. How should they be properly referred to, as a syndrome, or as a phenomenon Moreover this is the most important topic with reference to the codes of human behaviour.
Humanity will continue to seek ways to construct a humane, equal and just society that takes into consideration every individual. However, at this point in time, it is difficult to envisage human society advancing to the next stage of its development, i.e., the stage after modern capitalism.
Despite public declarations in developed countries concerning the greatness of democracy, most people in those countries do not experience a sense of well-being. On the one hand there is inequality and financial distress, sometimes to the extent of hunger and severe poverty, whereas on the other hand a minority enjoys extreme wealth. Exploitation, violence, prostitution, rape, emptiness, drugs, alcohol, increased use of anti-depression and pain medication, and suicide are widespread. There is spiritual poverty and a lack of vision, without any path to follow and a sense of despair. This is what characterises an advanced, modern human society. The situation is worse in third world, or developing countries. Genuine hunger (The Millennium Development Goals 2003), lower life expectancy than in the developed world (Kabir 2008), disease, high HIV rates (Yousaf et al. 2011), wars (Stewart et al. 2001), murder, rape (Donohoe 2002), and no hope for positive change in the future.
Prominent legends of anti-entropy deficiency syndrome have led to extremist religion, especially in Islamic countries (Falk 2008; McConnell 2006), and has resulted in terrorist organisations and attacks on innocent populations.
The build-up of nuclear weapons, the desire of countries and extremist organisations to build, or acquire nuclear, biological and chemical weapons could spur regional and world war. This is our current reality. The near or distant future certainly does not seem rosy and optimistic. In fact, the situation has not changed much compared with 100 years ago before the First World War, or 2,000 years ago at the time of the destruction of the second temple, or even 3,000 years ago.
Despite development of evolutionary psychology (Barkow 2006; Irons 2005; Tooby 1985) based on Darwinism (Darwin 1872) human behaviour has not changed over thousands of years. One may ask whether understanding the rules of human behaviour, the mechanisms of human enjoyment and happiness on the one hand, and human suffering on the other, can generate a change in human behaviour, permitting the creation of a new humane and equal society.
I am not promoting the establishment of a human society of disciplined robots, who are activated with medication, or some other influence on the brain centers that operate the feel well or feel bad mechanisms. Of course individuals must be permitted to express themselves without restriction, but not at the price of causing harm to others, or to society in general, and of course to themselves.
What, in fact, were Thomas More in “Utopia” first published in 1516 (More 2010), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848), and others contemplating when they dreamed of a better, human society? What do people of faith think will ensue after the coming of the Messiah? What will the “optimal” human society look like? Everyone has a dream.
An important question is how long can humanity exist? This question did not seem relevant 2,000 or 1,000 and even 100 years ago, because at that time, humanity did not have the ability to destroy itself. Today the situation is different. I presume that humanity will overcome the threat of weapons of mass destruction“(Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms 2001), nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and that no alternative destructive force will be developed that is capable of eliminating life on our planet within a matter of seconds. We will succeed in overcoming the lack of food and hunger, most illnesses, and problems relating to energy, water and environmental damage. Perhaps we will be able to solve the terrible situation experienced in developing countries. All this seems to belong to the realm of fantastic dreams. One hundred years ago life expectancy exceeding 80 years of age also seemed fantastic.
It seems to me that there is at least some awareness of these problems in modern human society. I believe that the way to overcome the problems of humanity, termed legend of anti-entropy deficiency, is simple and only requires curtailing one’s desires. One should learn to live modestly and to enjoy intellectual as opposed to material wealth. It may be said that I am advocating a return to communism. Furthermore, the name we give to the next stage of human society after capitalism is not important. For an individual, groups of people, a country or humanity as a whole, it is impossible to live without boundaries.
What if extremist nationalism continues to rise (Connor 1994)? The answer is simple. Nations must be taught to avoid extremist nationalism, even though this would clearly constitute a national legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency. What is the substitute? Can the Germans be taught to respect the French and vice versa? Can the Indians and Pakistanis be taught to respect each other? What about the Arabs and Jews?
Overall, the Jewish-Arab conflict of the last 100 years cannot be solved without solving the legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon from which both Arabs and Jews nations suffer. Peace will be achieved when both parties lower their demands and agree to coexist.
A much more important question for humanity concerns religion and religiosity. G-d’s existence is an objective fact that is not dependent on us, or whether or not we have faith. It is also not dependent on the form of belief. The fact of the matter is that because of the small nation of Israel, persecuted throughout the generations, constitutes a people that has worshipped G-d, spoken the holy tongue and studied the Torah en masse and in depth, there is also a sea of nations in the world who, in their own way, believe in G-d. Of course even among Jews there are those who have strong faith, others who have mild faith, and also, unfortunately, some who have no faith at all or atheists. Many nations are still involved in idolatry. Each of these dozens or even hundreds of groups of people believe this is the only true and pure faith and that other beliefs are impure or infidels. It is of interest that to the masses, religion and religiosity are a substitute for a legend of desirable anti-entropy deficiency, a substitute for wealth and happiness in their lives. Can bridges be built between the religions? It seems this will only be possible after the coming of the Messiah.
Nonetheless, among the followers of the three faiths, Judaism, Islam, and Christianity whose origins have sprung from the Torah, there is a possibility for unity. Although this seems unrealistic, it is the only way to prevent religious wars now and in the future. The Arab-Israeli dispute is a religious war (Weinberger 2004). It is a war between two legends of anti-entropy. The Jews and the Muslims, must climb down from their trees and compromise, seek coexistence and common ground, of which there is plenty, and they must learn to respect one another. I will repeat and declare that the principles of Judaism, Islam and Christianity each promote respect for the other.
I have tried to analyse many problems experienced by humanity from a new perspective. No solutions appear on the horizon. As occurs in medicine, correct diagnosis is a large part of successful treatment. This, in effect, is a diagnosis of the human behavioural problems that we may have received from G-d, or characteristics that may have developed during the course of human history.
The Earth, humankind and the environment are so special and beautiful and it would be a pity if it all disappeared. It would be unforgiveable if humanity does not advance from the period of barbarity in which we have lived for the last few thousand years. It would be a pity if humanity does not succeed in learning how to diagnose, treat and prevent human suffering, and how to provide each individual with a rich and happy life.
Adunsky, A., Aminoff, B. Z., Arad, M., & Bercovitch, M. (2008). Mini-Suffering State Examination: Suffering and survival of end-of-life cancer patients in a hospice setting. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 24(6), 493-498.
Ahmad, H. R., & Brown, S. M. (2006). Serotonin. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(1), 12.
Aminoff , B. Z. (2001). Suffering, satisfaction and entropy. 17th World Congress of the International Association of Gerontology, July 1-6, 2001, Vancouver, Canada. Gerontology 47 (Suppl 1), 124.
Aminoff, B. Z. (2007). Measurement of Suffering in End-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease. Tel Aviv, Israel: Probook, Dyonon.
Aminoff, B. Z. (2008). Mini-suffering state examination scale: possible key criterion for 6 months’ survival and mortality of critically ill dementia patients. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 24(6), 470-474.
Aminoff, B. Z. (2011). Entropy definition of human happiness and suffering. 6th Annual International Conference on Philosophy, May 30-June 2, 2011, Athens, Greece. p. 2.
Aminoff, B. Z. (2013a). Entropic definition of human happiness and suffering. Philosophy Study, 3, 609-618.
Aminoff, B. Z. (2013b). Aminoff Suffering Syndrome and anti-entropy deficiency phenomenon in advanced dementia. The 20th IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, June 23 – 27, Seoul, Korea, 2013. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 17 (Suppl. 1), p. S404.
Aminoff, B. Z., & Adunsky, A. (2004). Dying dementia patients: too much suffering, too little palliation. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 19(4), 243-247.
Aminoff , B. Z., & Adunsky, A. (2006). Their last six months of life: suffering and survival of end-stage dementia patients. Age & Ageing, 36(5), 597-601.
Aminoff, B. Z., Purits, E., Noy, Sh., & Adunsky, A. (2004). Measuring the suffering of end-stage dementia: reliability and validity of the . Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 38(2), 123-130.
Balon, R., & Hobson, A. J. (2007). Basic drives: Eating, sleeping, and sex. InF. E. Bloom, M. F. Beal, & D. J. Kupfer (Eds.). The Dana guide to brain health. A practical family reference from medical experts. New York: Dana Press.
Barkow, J. H. (2006). Missing the Revolution: Darwinism for Social Scientists. New York USA: Oxford University Press
Baumeister, F. R., Catanese, R. K., & Vohs, D. K. (2001). Is there a gender difference in strength of sex drive? Theoretical views, conceptual distinctions, and a review of relevant evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5(3), 242–273.
Bentham, J. (1996, first published in 1789). The Principles of Morals and Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
Betz, C., Mihalic, D., Pinto, M. E., & Raffa, R. B. (2000). Could a common biochemical mechanism underlie addictions? Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 25 (1), 11-20.
Brooks, A. C. (2008). Gross national happiness: Why happiness matters for America – and how we can get more of it. New York: Basic Books.
Cassell, E. J. (2004). The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine.New York;Oxford University Press.
Clausius, R. (1862). On the application of the theorem of the equivalence of transformations to interior work. Communicated to the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Zurich, Jan. 27th, 1862. 215-50. Published in the Viertaljahrschrift of this Society, vii: 48.1862.
Cohen-Zada, D., & Sander, W. (2011). Religious participation versus shopping: What makes people happier? Journal of Law and Economics, 54(4), 889-906.
Connor, W. (1994). Ethnonationalism: The quest for understanding (p. 29). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray.
David S. (2013). New, Holy War: The rise of militant Christian, Jewish and Islamic fundamentalism. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers,
“Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (2001). Dtic.mil. 12 April 2001. Accessed 5 August 2010.
Diamant, L. (1987). Male and female homosexuality: Psychological approaches (pp. 129-153). Cambridge: Hemisphere Corporation.
Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13 (1), 81-84.
DiIulio, J. J. (2009). More religion, less crime? Science, felonies, and the three faith factors. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 5, 115-133.
Donohoe, M. (2002). Individual and societal forms of violence against women in the US and the developing world: an overview. Current Women’s Health Reports, 2,313-319.
Drug Policy Alliance (2013). Forty years of failure. http://www.drugpolicy.org/new-solutions-drug-policy/forty-years-failure
Eldredge, K. L., & Agras, W. S. (1994). Weight and shape overconcern and emotional eating in binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19 (1), 73-82.
Falk, A. (2008). Islamic terror: conscious and unconscious motives (p.4). Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International,
Fowler, S. J., Volkow, D. N., Kassed, A. C. & Chang L. (2007). Imaging the addicted human brain. Science & Practice Perspectives, 3(2), 4-16.
Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the pleasure principle (first published in German in 1920 as
Jenseits des Lustprinzips). New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1961
Freud, S. (1949, first published in 1923). The Ego and the Id. London: The Hogarth Press Ltd.
Gerber, R. J. (2004). Legalizing marijuana: Drug policy reform and prohibition politics. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Ghent, E. (1990). Masochism, submission, surrender – masochism as a perversion of surrender. Contemporary Psychoanaysis, 26, 108-136.
Giovino, G. A., Mirza, S. A., Samet, J. M., Gupta, P. C., Jarvis, M. J. Bhala N, et al. (2012). GATS Collaborative Group. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys. Lancet, 380(9842), 668-679. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61085-X. PMID22901888.
Gomes, F. C., Andrade, A. G., Izbicki, R., Almeida, A. M. & Oliveira, L. G. (2013). Religion as a protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students: a national survey. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 35(1), 29-37.
Gvion, Y. & Apter, A. (2012). Suicide and suicidal behaviour. Public Health Reviews, 34: epub ahead of print.
Habhab, S., Sheldon, J. P. & Loeb, R. C. (2009). The relationship between stress, dietary restraint, and food preferences in women. Appetite, 52, 437-444.
Hare, R. D. (1970). Psychopathy, theory and research. New York: John Wiley.
Hudson, R. A. (1999). The Sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why? A Report prepared under an Interagency Agreement by the Federal Research Division. Washington, DC: The Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Hunt, K. (2013). Report: Cheaper, purer illegal substances suggest global war on drugs is failing. By Katie Hunt, for CNN October 1, 2013 — Updated 0615 GMT (1415 HKT).
Insel, T. R. (1992). Oxytocin – a neuropeptide for affiliation: evidence from behavioural, receptor autoradiographic, and comparative studies, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17(1), 3-35.
Irons, W. (2005). How has evolution shaped human behaviour? Richard Alexander’s contribution to an important question. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 26, 1-9.
Johnson, P. & Kenny, P. J. (2010). Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats. Nature Neuroscience, 13(5), 635-641.
Kantor, M. (2006). The psychopathy of everyday life: How antisocial personality disorder affects all of us. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Kassam, K. S., Markey, A. R., Cherkassky, L., Loewenstein, D. & Just, M. A. (2013). Identifying emotions on the basis of neural activation. PLoS ONE, 8(6), NOS.: e66032. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066032 (Published: June 19, 2013).
Kenny, P.J. (2013). Is obesity an addiction? Scientific American.
Kim, T. W., Saitz, R., Kretsch, N., Cruz, A., Winter, M. R., Shanahan, C. W., & Alford, D. P. (2013). Screening for unhealthy alcohol and other drug use by health educators: Do primary care clinicians document screening results? Journal of Addiction Medicine, 7(3):204-9.
Kimberly, Y.(2009). Understanding online gaming addiction and treatment issues for adolescents. The American Journal of Family Therapy. 37(5), 355-372.
Klein, S. (2010). Fatty foods may cause cocaine-like addiction. Health.com. March 30, 2010
Kringelbach, L. M. & Berridge, C. K. (2010). The functional neuroanatomy of pleasure and happiness. Discovery Medicine, 9(49), 579–587.
Liu, A. (2007). Gaining: The truth about life after eating disorders. New York: Warner Books.
Leuenberger, A. (2006). Endorphins, exercise, and addictions: A review of exercise dependence. The Premier Journal for Undergraduate Publications in the Neurosciences, 1-9.
Levay, S. (2006). The Biology of Sexual Orientation. Homepage of Simon LeVay. 25 Sept. 2006.
Macht M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: A five-way model. Appetite, 50:1, 1-11.
Malick, J. B., & Bell, R. M. (1982). Endorphins: chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and clinical relevance. New York.
Marx, K (1843). Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. Marxist Internet Archive. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1843/critique-hpr/index.htm (2 of 2) [23/08/2000 18:48:42] ssed 19 January 2012.
Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1848). The Communist manifesto. New York: Penguin group, 1998.
Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm.
Mayhew, S. (2009). Human Suffering Index . In A Dictionary of Geography.
4th edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780199231805.
McConnell, S. (2005). The logic of suicide terrorism.. The American Conservative magazine.
http://amconmag.com/2005_07_18/article.html. . Accessed June 25, 2006
McKenna, R. J. (1972). Some effects of anxiety level and food cues on the eating behavior of obese and normal subjects: A comparison of Schachterian and Psychosomatic conceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22(3), 311-319.
McKibbin, F.W., Shackelford, K.T., Goetz, T.A. & Starratt, G.V. (2008). Why do men rape? An evolutionary psychological perspective. Review of general psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association,1 2(1), 86–97.
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Abnormal psychology – simply psychology. http://www.simplypsychology.org/abnormal-psychology.html. Accessed 10 December 2013.
Messinger, L. & Goldberg, M. (2006). My thin excuse: Understanding, recognizing, and overcoming eating disorders. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers.
Mill, J.S. (1879). Utilitarianism. Reprinted from Frazer’s Magazine’ 7th edition London: Longmans, Green and Co.
Mizrahi, R., Mamo, D., Rusjan, P., Graff, A., Houle, S. & Kapur S. (2009). The relationship between subjective well-being and dopamine D2 receptors in patients treated with a dopamine partial agonist and full antagonist antipsychotics. Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 12(5), 715-21. doi: 0.1017/S1461145709000327.
More, T. (2010). Utopia. 3rd edition. G. M. Logan & R. M. Adams (eds).
New York: Norton Critical Editions.
Nehlig, A., Daval, J. L., & Debry, G. R. (1992). Caffeine and the central nervous system: Mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Research Reviews, 17(2), 139-170. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012- B. PMID1356551.
Nestler J. E. (1992). Molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. The Journal of Neuroscience. 12 (7), 2439-2450.
News & Media. (2012). Alcohol is the worst drug in the United States. StudyMode.com. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Alcohol-Is-The- Worst-Drug-In-1243098.html. Accessed November, 2012.
Nietzsche, F. (1954, first published in 1895). The Antichrist. Reprinted in The Portable Nietzsche (pp.608-609), New York: Penguin.
Okulicz-Kozaryn, A. (2010). Religiosity and life satisfaction across nations. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13, 155-169.
Olds, J., & Milner, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 47, 419-427.
Pittel, K. & Rubbelke DTG (2009). Decision processes of a suicide bomber – integrating economics and psychology. CER-ETH – Center of Economic Research at ETH Zurich Economics Working Paper No. 09/106 (February 23, 2009). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1347945 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1347945
Rettner, R. (2011). Depression higher in rich countries, study suggests. MyHealthNewsDaily Staff Writer, July 25, 2011, 08:31pm ET.
Rosenhan, D. L. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1989). Abnormal psychology, 2nd edition. New York: W.W. Norton.
Routtenberg, A. & Lindy, J. (1965). Effects of the availability of rewarding septal and hypothalamic stimulation on bar pressing for food under conditions of deprivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 60, 158-161.
Saitz, R. (2010). Alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care: Absence of evidence for efficacy in people with dependence or very heavy drinking. Drug Alcohol Review, 29, 631-640. PMCID: PMC2966031.
Salsman, J. M., Brown, T. L., Brechting, E. H., & Carlson, C. R. (2005). The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: The mediating role of optimism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 522-535.
Schopenhauer, A. (1969, first published in 1818).The World as will and representation, vol. 1, trans. by E. Payne. New York: Dover Publishing Inc.
Schrödinger, E. (1944). What is Life?. 1st edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sescousse, G., Redoute, J., & Dreher, J. C. (2010). The architecture of reward value coding in the human orbitofrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(39), 13095-13104.
Stewart, F., Huang, C. & Wang, M. (2001). Internal wars in developing countries:An empirical overview of economic and social consequences. In F. Stewart & V. FitzGerald (Eds). War and under development: The economic and social consequences of conflict. Oxford University Press.
Szymanski, M. D., Moffitt, B. L., & Carr, R. E. (2011). Sexual objectification of women: Advances to theory and research. The Counseling Psychologist, 39(1), 6-38.
The Bible. (1996a) Exodus 5, 9 (1). Tel Aviv, Israel: Sinai Publishing.
The Bible. (1996b). Leviticus 19, 18. Tel Aviv, Israel: Sinai Publishing.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Eradication of Extreme Poverty and Hunger. (2003). Discussion paper at the Asia Pacific Civil Society Forum, Bangkok, Thailand, October 6-8, 2003.
The World Fact Book (2013). Religions.https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/…world-factbook/…/us.html. Accessed 8 June 2013
Tooby, J. (1985). The emergence of evolutionary psychology. In Emerging Syntheses in Science. Proceedings of the Founding Workshops of the Santa Fe Institute. Santa Fe, NM: The Santa Fe Institute.
Torres, S., & Nowson, C. (2007). Relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity. Nutrition, 23(11-12), 887-894.
Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177.
Weinberger, P. E. (2004). Incorporating religion into Israeli-Palestinian peacemaking: recommendations for policymakers. Center for World Religions, Diplomacy, and Conflict Resolution, Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University. http://www.gmu.edu/depts/crdc/docs/recommendations.
Accessed August 30, 2008.
Yousaf, Z. M., Zia, S., Babar, E. M. & Ashfaq, A. U. (2011). The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan. Virology Journal, 8,401 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-401.